Kriegsmarine U-Bootwaffe. He was commander of U-57, U-552 (the Red Devil Boat) and U-2513. He was decorated with the Knights Cross, Oak Leaf and Crossed Swords. Only 145 U-Bootfahrer were decorated with the Knights Cross, only 28 U-Boat Skippers were decorated with the Oak Leaf and only 5 with the Crossed Swords. He sank the first American warship in World War Two in error.